7 million people. Operations were handled by the separate Ministry of Foreign Affairs. You can help by adding. Penn State University Press. 140 A main motivation for industrialization was preparation for war, mostly due to distrust of the outside capitalistic world. In 1988, the Soviet Union abandoned its nine-year war in Afghanistan and began to withdraw its forces. 63 On, a law was passed allowing a republic to secede if more than two-thirds of its residents voted for it in a referendum. Usgov1 Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011;.494" Ukrainian 'Holodomor' (man-made famine) Facts and History Archived t the Wayback Machine. The German Army suffered 80 of its military deaths in the Eastern Front. In an attempt to avoid a third short-lived leader, in 1985, the Soviets turned to the next generation and selected Mikhail Gorbachev. Deffeyes, Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert's Peak. Federation of American Scientists. The 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki thus became first Olympic Games for Soviet athletes. Org (28 November 2006). Archived from the original on Retrieved eb, Kalipada (1996). 226 The government encouraged a variety of trends. Archived from the original on Retrieved Russia Encyclopædia Britannica Archived t the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on Retrieved 4 February 2019. "The Treatment of Soviet POWs: Starvation, Disease, and Shootings, June 1941January 1942". 65 The Soviet Army originally remained under overall CIS command, but was soon absorbed into the different military forces of the newly independent states. The Red Army stopped the seemingly invincible German Army at the Battle of Moscow, aided by an unusually harsh winter. 222 Religious institutions remained monitored by the Soviet government, but churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques were all given more leeway in the Brezhnev era. The Soviet Union used the inquisitorial system of Roman law, where the judge, procurator, and defense attorney collaborate to establish the truth. In the early 1960s, the Soviets awarded 40 of chemistry PhDs to women, compared to only 5 who received such a degree in the United States. Significant amounts of Soviet resources during the Cold War were allocated in aid to the other socialist states. It included construction of a network of 30 regional power stations, including ten large hydroelectric power plants, and numerous electric-powered large industrial enterprises. An underground dissident literature, known as samizdat, developed during this late period.